Navigating Tax Considerations for Investments in Europe

When it comes to investments, whether traditional or alternative like investing in loans through Asset-Backed Securities (ABS), it is crucial for investors to grasp the tax implications. Each European country has its own unique tax regulations and considerations that can significantly impact the returns and overall tax efficiency of such investments. In this article, we will delve into the tax landscape of European countries, providing valuable insights to empower investors in making informed decisions and optimizing their investment strategies.

Magic of PIT, CGT & NWT


Personal Income Tax is an income tax imposed on an individual's wages, salaries, and other sources of income.
In most countries, personal income taxes follow a progressive structure, where the tax rate increases as individuals earn higher wages. The highest tax rate applies to the portion of income that falls into the highest tax bracket. For example, if a country has five tax brackets and a top income tax rate of 50 percent with a threshold of €1 million, any income above €1 million would be taxed at 50 percent.


Capital Gains Tax is the tax applied to profits realized from the sale of non-inventory assets. Common capital gains arise from the sale of stocks, bonds, precious metals, real estate, and property. The tax is calculated based on the difference between the asset's sale price and acquisition price, and it is subject to different rates depending on the holding term and the taxpayer's income level.
In many countries, investment income, such as dividends and capital gains, is taxed at different rates than wage income.
When an individual sells an asset for a profit, they are subject to capital gains tax on that gain. For instance, if you buy a share for €100 and sell it for €120, you will pay capital gains tax on the €20 gain.
Several European countries, including Belgium, the Czech Republic, Luxembourg, Slovakia, Slovenia, and Switzerland, do not impose capital gains taxes on the sale of long-held shares. Among the countries that do levy a capital gains tax, Greece and Hungary have the lowest rates at 15 percent.


Net Wealth Tax is a tax imposed on an individual's net wealth, which is the market value of their total owned assets minus liabilities. The definition of wealth can vary, resulting in different bases for a wealth tax.
Net wealth taxes are recurring taxes on an individual's wealth, after accounting for debts. It is similar to a real property tax but encompasses all of an individual's owned wealth, rather than solely real estate. Only France, Luxemburg, Spain, and Switzerland* levy a net wealth tax. Belgium and Italy impose wealth taxes on selected assets but not on an individual's net wealth itself.

Unraveling Europe's Tax Mosaic

TerritoryHeadline PIT rate (%)Headline individual capital gains tax rate (%)Headline net wealth/worth tax rate (%)
(Last reviewed 03 Mar 2023)
(Last reviewed 27 March 2023)
50 (plus communal taxes ranging between 0% and 9% of the Federal tax rate)In general exempted (except in some specific cases)Annual tax on securities accounts (version 2.0) levied at a rate of 0.15% on the average value of the account in excess of EUR 1 million.
(Last reviewed 16 January 2023)
(Last reviewed 30 Dec 2022)
30% increased for municipal tax (levied at the rates ranging from 0% to 18%, depending on taxpayer's place of residence)10% increased for municipal tax (levied at the rates ranging from 0% to 18%, depending on taxpayer's place of residence)N/A
(Last reviewed 04 Jan 2023)
Czech Republic 
(Last reviewed 01 Feb 2023)
15 and 23Capital gains are subject to the normal PIT rate. N/A
(Last reviewed 03 Mar 2023)
Up to 56% (i.e. 52% + 8% labour market tax)Capital gains are subject to the normal PIT rate.N/A
(Last reviewed 22 Jan 2023)
20Capital gains are subject to the normal PIT rate.N/A
(Last reviewed 03 Feb 2023)
Residents: Progressive tax rates up to approximately 55%  Non-residents: 35% 30 (and 34 on income exceeding EUR 30,000 annually). N/A
(Last reviewed 08 Mar 2023)
45, plus surtax and social surcharges 30, plus exceptional income tax for high earners at 4%1.5
(Last reviewed 31 Dec 2022)
45, plus surcharges25, plus 5.5% solidarity surcharge on tax paid (in total 26.375% plus church tax if applicable) N/A
(Last reviewed 31 Dec 2022)
15 Capital gains are subject to the normal PIT rate (15%). If certain conditions are not met, an additional 15.5% social tax is also payable. N/A
(Last reviewed 01 Mar 2023)
40 33N/A
(Last reviewed 10 Feb 2023)
43 Capital gains are subject to separate taxation at 26% (normal PIT rate applies in certain instances).Wealth tax on real estate properties owned outside of Italy (IVIE): 0.76%;  Wealth tax on investments owned outside of Italy (IVAFE): 0.2%.
(Last reviewed 17 Jan 2023)
31 20N/A
(Last reviewed 20 Jan 2023)
32 (see Lithuania's individual tax summary for rates for individual activity income and other non-employment-related income). 20N/A
(Last reviewed 03 Jan 2023)
42, plus 9% solidarity tax  Capital gains are subject to the normal PIT rate. 0.5% up to EUR 500 million and 0.05% for any amount in excess of EUR 500 million.
(Last reviewed 08 Feb 2023)
35 See Malta's individual tax summary for tax rates on capital gains.N/A
(Last reviewed 28 Dec 2022)
49.5 N/AThe Netherlands have no tax on wealth, but they do have a tax on a fixed return on wealth.
(Last reviewed 12 Mar 2023)
32, plus 4% solidarity tax on income exceeding PLN 1 million  Transfer of real property: Subject to the normal PIT rate. Transfer of shares: 19. N/A
(Last reviewed 03 Jan 2023)
Residents: Up to 48% plus solidarity surtax of 2.5% on the taxable income exceeding EUR 80,000 and 5% on the amount of taxable income exceeding EUR 250,000. Special tax rates may apply on certain types of income.  Non-residents: As a rule, 25% for employment / self-employment and pension income from a Portuguese source. See Portugal's individual tax summary for capital gain rates.N/A
(Last reviewed 20 Feb 2023)
10 Capital gains are subject to the normal PIT rate. N/A
Slovak Republic 
(Last reviewed 04 Dec 2022)
25 19N/A
(Last reviewed 05 Jun 2023)
50 25N/A
(Last reviewed 01 Feb 2023)
Residents: 47 (*);  Non-residents: 24 (**)  (*) This is the maximum progressive scale of withholdings rate (final taxation will vary depending on the autonomous region where the taxpayer is resident; in some of them, the headline PIT rate reaches 54%).  (**) 19% for residents in other EU member states or EEA countries with which there is an effective exchange of tax information. Residents: 26;  Non-residents: Capital gains generated as a result of a transfer of assets are taxed at 19%.3.5% according to the state tax scale, which is applicable if the autonomous community has not approved its own tax scale.
(Last reviewed 13 Jun 2023)
Residents: 20, plus municipal tax;  Non-residents: 25  30N/A
(Last reviewed 19 Jan 2023)
Federal: 11.5%.  Cantonal and communal PIT rate varies per canton and is added to the federal PIT rate, resulting in an overall PIT rate between 22.1% and 45.5% at the capital of a specific Swiss canton. Movable assets: Exempt.  Non-movable assets: Exempt for federal tax, and cantonal tax rate varies per canton.Federal: Exempt.  Cantonal and communal personal net wealth tax rates vary per canton, resulting in an overall personal net wealth tax rate between 0.02% and 1.01%.

Maximizing Tax Efficiency in Alternative Investments

Regardless of the country, investors can adopt strategies to optimize the tax efficiency of their alternative investments. Some considerations include:
  1. Utilizing tax-advantaged accounts or investment structures, such as Individual Savings Accounts (ISAs) or investment funds specifically designed for tax efficiency.
  2. Timing investment transactions strategically to minimize the impact of capital gains taxes.
  3. Leveraging tax incentives or deductions available for certain types of investments or sectors.
  4. Keeping meticulous records of investment-related expenses to ensure accurate tax reporting.
  5. Seeking professional advice from tax experts who specialize in alternative investments to ensure compliance and maximize tax benefits.
Investing in alternative assets like ABS can be a lucrative opportunity, but it's crucial to understand the tax implications in each European country. By navigating the tax landscape effectively, investors can optimize their tax position and enhance the overall returns of their alternative investments. Consulting with tax professionals and staying informed about the latest tax regulations and incentives will enable investors to make well-informed decisions and manage their investment portfolios efficiently.

Please note that this article provides general information and should not be considered as tax advice. It's recommended to consult with a qualified tax advisor or accountant for personalized advice based on your specific circumstances and the tax regulations of your country.

*Switzerland is not an EU or EEA member but is part of the single market.
Sorces: PWC, Worldwidfe Tax Summaries; Tax Founddation

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