Guide to Understanding Investment Types and Options

Most people desire to increase their income, and it's a well-known fact! It provides a sense of security, peace, and the ability to enjoy a significant part of life. There are essentially two ways to achieve this: working more (though this can compromise one's time and health, hindering life's enjoyment) and investing. Investing is an approach that allows you to generate additional money and profits from your existing resources.

That is why investing is an essential component of achieving financial success and security. However, the world of investments can be complex and vast, with various options to consider. Many research studies have shown that the primary reason people hesitate to invest is a lack of financial knowledge. Consequently, this fear holds them back from embarking on their investment journey.

To help you navigate this financial landscape, here is a comprehensive guide to understanding the various investment types and options available to you:


Common stocks

These are the most common type of stocks that represent ownership in a company. Common stockholders have voting rights and may receive dividends, but they are on the lower priority level for dividends and assets in case of bankruptcy.

Preferred stocks

Preferred stockholders have a higher claim on a company's assets and earnings than common stockholders. They receive dividends before common shareholders and often do not have voting rights.

To buy stocks, you'll need a brokerage account. There are online brokers and traditional brokerage firms. Online brokers are often more cost-effective and offer user-friendly platforms.


Bonds are debt securities that represent loans made by investors to governments, corporations, or other entities. They are considered relatively lower-risk investments compared to stocks and offer regular interest payments.

Government bonds

Issued by the government and generally considered low-risk.

Corporate bonds

Issued by corporations to raise capital, with varying levels of risk.

Mortgage-backed securities (MBS)

Backed by pools of mortgages, MBS provide regular income and are influenced by changes in interest rates.

Asset-backed securities (ABS)

Collateralized by assets such as car loans, credit card debt, or student loans, making them a diverse category.

Foreign bonds

Issued by foreign governments or corporations, which may come with currency risk.

Zero-coupon bonds

Sold at a discount and pay face value at maturity, offering capital appreciation but no periodic interest payments.

Real Estate

Residential real estate

Properties like homes or apartments for rental or resale.

Commercial real estate

Properties used for business purposes, such as office spaces or retail buildings.

Real Estate Investment Trust (REIT)

Companies that own, operate, or finance income-producing real estate in a range of property sectors. A way to gain exposure to the real estate market and potentially earn dividends from rental income and capital appreciation, without the need to purchase and manage properties directly.

Mutual Funds

Diversified portfolios

Pools of money from various investors, managed by professionals across a range of investments.

Exchange-traded funds (ETFs)

Similar to mutual funds but traded on stock exchanges like individual stocks.

Alternative Investments


Invest in physical goods such as gold, oil, or agricultural products.

Private equity

Investment in private companies or startups.

Hedge funds

Managed investment funds that can use diverse strategies.

Retirement Accounts


Employer-sponsored retirement plans.

Individual Retirement Accounts (IRAs)

Individual savings accounts with tax advantages.

Savings Accounts and Certificates of Deposit (CDs)

Savings accounts

Offer liquidity and low returns.


Time deposits with higher interest rates but less liquidity.


Bitcoin, Ethereum, and More: Digital currencies with potential for high returns and high volatility.

Peer-to-Peer Lending

Licensed investments platforms

Invest in personal or business loans through financial instruments or asset-backed-securities.

Unlicensed investment platforms

Invest by lending money to individuals or small businesses.

Start-Up Investments

Venture Capital and Angel Investments

Investing in new or growing companies offers significant potential for returns, but it also comes with a range of risks.

Precious Metals

Gold, Silver, and More

Invest in valuable metals as a hedge against economic instability.

Understanding these investment options is the first step towards making informed choices to grow your wealth. It's essential to assess your financial goals, risk tolerance, and time horizon to determine which investments align best with your needs.

Remember that diversification can help manage risk and optimize returns. Consider consulting a financial advisor to develop a tailored investment strategy that aligns with your unique financial situation and aspirations.

Any investment carries risks, including the potential loss of your capital. It's essential to do your due diligence and have a clear investment strategy.

Share with friends

Start investing and backup your future with Nectaro

A licensed European investment platform.

Investing in financial instruments involves risk. Keep in mind that there's no absolute guarantee of getting back the full invested amount.

SIA Nectaro (registration nr. 40203016025; legal address: Jeruzalemes 1, Riga, LV-1010, Latvia) is an investment brokerage firm licensed by Latvijas Banka (address: K. Valdemara 2A, Riga, LV-1050, Latvia). License number 27-5520233.

Nectaro is a member of the national investor compensation scheme established under EU Directive 97/9/EC. The scheme protects investors by providing compensation if Nectaro fails to return financial instruments or cash to investors. The maximum compensation an investor can claim under the scheme is 90% of their net loss, up to a maximum of €20 000.

© 2024 Nectaro. All rights reserved.